Biodiversity & Conservation
Conservation is an ethic of resource use, allocation, and protection that primarily focuses on maintaining the health of the natural world, its fisheries, habitats, and biological diversity. Its secondary focus is on materials conservation, including non-renewable resources such as metals, minerals and fossil fuels, and energy conservation, which is important to protect the natural world.
To conserve habitat in terrestrial ecoregions and stop deforestation is a goal widely shared by many groups with a wide variety of motivations. To protect sea life from extinction due to overfishing or climate change is another commonly stated goal of conservation — ensuring that "some will be available for future generations" to continue a way of life.
The consumer conservation ethic is sometimes expressed by the four R's: "Rethink, Reduce, Recycle, Repair". This social ethic primarily relates to local and moral purchasing, the sustained and efficient use of renewable resources, the moderation of destructive use of finite resources, and the prevention of harm to common resources, the natural functions of a living earth, and cultural values in a built environment.
New Zealand has 14 national parks, 31 marine reserves and many other protected areas for the conservation of biodiversity. The introduction of many invasive species is threatening the indigenous biodiversity since New Zealand's geographical isolation has resulted in the evolution of plants and animals that lack traits to protect against predation. New Zealand has a high proportion of indigenous species, so pest control is vital.
The New Zealand Department of Conservation administers approximately 30% of New Zealand's land, along with less than 1% of the country's marine environment, for both conservation and recreational purposes. It has published lists, under the New Zealand Threat Classification System, of flora and fauna which is at risk or declining which are included in national and regional plans.
For more information on conservation and biodiversity efforts in Hawke's Bay: